Dentistry

 
 
Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity (the mouth), commonly in the dentition (development and arrangement of teeth) as well as the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in associated maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area. The field of dentistry or dental medicine includes teeth as well as other aspects of the craniofacial complex including the temporomandibular joint and other supporting, muscular, lymphatic, nervous, vascular, and anatomical structures. The practitioner is called a dentist. Dentistry is often also understood to subsume the now largely defunct medical specialty of stomatology (the study of the mouth and its disorders and diseases) for which reason the two terms are used interchangeably in certain regions. For instance, in Australia, stomatology is considered to be a specialty of dentistry. However, some specialties such as oral and maxillofacial surgery (facial reconstruction) may require both medical and dental degrees to accomplish. Dentistry and some branches of medicine in European history were considered to have stemmed from the trade of barber surgeons. However, both fields have evolved since with a heavier emphasis in life sciences, evidence-based research and evidence-based practice. Dental treatments are carried out by a dental team, which often consists of a dentist and dental auxiliaries (dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, as well as dental therapists). Most dentists either work in private practices (primary care), dental hospitals or (secondary care) institutions (prisons, armed forces bases, etc.). The history of dentistry is almost as ancient as the history of humanity and civilization with the earliest evidence dating from 7000 BC to 5500 BC. Skeletal remains from Mehgarh (now in Pakistan) dated to that time show evidence of teeth having been drilled with flint tools to remove decay, a method found to be "surprisingly effective". Dentistry is thought to have been the first specialization in medicine which have gone on to develop its own accredited degree with its own specialisations. The modern movement of evidence-based dentistry calls for the use of high-quality scientific research and evidence to guide decision-making such as in manual tooth conservation, use of fluoride water treatment and fluoride toothpaste, dealing with oral diseases such as tooth decay and periodontitis, as well as systematic diseases such as osteoporosis, diabetes, celiac disease, cancer, HIV/AIDS which could also affect the oral cavity. Other practices relevant to evidence-based dentistry include radiology of the mouth to inspect teeth deformity or oral malaises, haematology (study of blood) to avoid bleeding complications during dental surgery, cardiology (due to various severe complications arising from dental surgery with patients with heart disease), etc. ..More on Wikipedia

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